The Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Vaccination and Infection on Neutralizing Antibodies: A Nation-wide Cross-sectional Analysis - Inserm - Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale Access content directly
Journal Articles Journal of Infectious Diseases Year : 2023

The Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Vaccination and Infection on Neutralizing Antibodies: A Nation-wide Cross-sectional Analysis

Abstract

Background: Neutralising antibodies (nAbs) play a critical role in the protection against severe COVID-19. In the era of vaccine boosters and repeated SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, identifying individuals at risk represents a public health priority. Methods: Relying on the Monaco COVID Public Health Programme, we evaluated nAbs from July 2021-June 2022 in 8,080 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated and/or infected children and adults, at their inclusion visit. We stratified by infection status and investigated variables associated with nAbs using a generalised additive model. Results: Infected and vaccinated participants had high and consistent nAbs (>800 IU/mL), which remained stable over time since injection, regardless of the number of vaccine doses, body mass index, sex, or age. By contrast, uninfected participants showed larger variability (two doses [V2] median 157.6; interquartile range [IQR] 43.3-439.1 IU/mL) versus three doses [V3] median 882.5; [829.5-914.8] IU/mL). NAbs decreased by 20% per month after V2 (adjusted ratio 0.80; 95%CI [0.79-0.82]), but remained stable after V3 (adjusted ratio 0.98; 95%CI [0.92-1.05]). Conclusions: Hybrid immunity provided stable, high and consistent nAbs over time. The benefit of boosters was marked to restore decaying nAbs in uninfected participants. NAbs could identify individuals at risk of severe COVID-19 and provide more targeted vaccine boosters' campaigns.
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inserm-04547333 , version 1 (15-04-2024)

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Thomas Althaus, Jordi Landier, Feng Zhu, Hervé Raps, Olivier Dejoux, et al.. The Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Vaccination and Infection on Neutralizing Antibodies: A Nation-wide Cross-sectional Analysis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2023, 227, pp.1255 - 1265. ⟨10.1093/infdis/jiad030⟩. ⟨inserm-04547333⟩
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