Spatio-Temporal Variability of Malaria Incidence in the Health District of Kati, Mali, 2015–2019 - Inserm - Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale Access content directly
Journal Articles International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Year : 2022

Spatio-Temporal Variability of Malaria Incidence in the Health District of Kati, Mali, 2015–2019

Abstract

Introduction: Despite the implementation of control strategies at the national scale, the malaria burden remains high in Mali, with more than 2.8 million cases reported in 2019. In this context, a new approach is needed, which accounts for the spatio-temporal variability of malaria transmission at the local scale. This study aimed to describe the spatio-temporal variability of malaria incidence and the associated meteorological and environmental factors in the health district of Kati, Mali. Methods: Daily malaria cases were collected from the consultation records of the 35 health areas of Kati's health district, for the period 2015-2019. Data on rainfall, relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, the normalized difference vegetation index, air pressure, and land use-land cover were extracted from open-access remote sensing sources, while data on the Niger River's height and flow were obtained from the National Department of Hydraulics. To reduce the dimension and account for collinearity, strongly correlated meteorological and environmental variables were combined into synthetic indicators (SI), using a principal component analysis. A generalized additive model was built to determine the lag and the relationship between the main SIs and malaria incidence. The transmission periods were determined using a change-point analysis. High-risk clusters (hotspots) were detected using the SatScan method and were ranked according to risk level, using a classification and regression tree analysis. Results: The peak of the malaria incidence generally occurred in October. Peak incidence decreased from 60 cases per 1000 person-weeks in 2015, to 27 cases per 1000 personweeks in 2019. The relationship between the first SI (river flow and height, relative humidity, and rainfall) and malaria incidence was positive and almost linear. A non-linear relationship was found between the second SI (air pressure and temperature) and malaria incidence. Two transmission periods were determined per year: a low transmission period from January to July-corresponding to a persisting transmission during the dry season-and a high transmission period from July to December. The spatial distribution of malaria hotspots varied according to the transmission period. Discussion: Our study confirmed the important variability of malaria incidence and found malaria transmission to be associated with several meteorological and environmental factors in the Kati district. The persistence of malaria during the dry season and the spatio-temporal variability of malaria hotspots reinforce the need for innovative and targeted strategies.
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Dates and versions

inserm-04042872 , version 1 (23-03-2023)

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Abdoulaye Katile, Issaka Sagara, Mady Cissoko, Cedric Stephane Bationo, Mathias Dolo, et al.. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Malaria Incidence in the Health District of Kati, Mali, 2015–2019. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2022, 19 (21), pp.14361. ⟨10.3390/ijerph192114361⟩. ⟨inserm-04042872⟩
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