Individual and healthcare supply-related HIV transmission factors in HIV-positive patients enrolled in the antiretroviral treatment access program in the Centre and Littoral regions in Cameroon (ANRS-12288 EVOLCam survey) - Inserm - Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale Access content directly
Journal Articles PLoS ONE Year : 2022

Individual and healthcare supply-related HIV transmission factors in HIV-positive patients enrolled in the antiretroviral treatment access program in the Centre and Littoral regions in Cameroon (ANRS-12288 EVOLCam survey)

Abstract

Background: Despite great progress in antiretroviral treatment (ART) access in recent decades, HIV incidence remains high in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the role of individual and healthcare supply-related factors in HIV transmission risk in HIV-positive adults enrolled in 19 HIV services in the Centre and Littoral regions of Cameroon. Methods: Factors associated with HIV transmission risk (defined as both unstable aviremia and inconsistent condom use with HIV-negative or unknown status partners) were identified using a multi-level logistic regression model. Besides socio-demographic and behavioral individual variables, the following four HIV-service profiles, identified using cluster analysis, were used in regression analyses as healthcare supply-related variables: 1) district services with large numbers of patients, almost all practicing task-shifting and not experiencing antiretroviral drugs (ARV) stock-outs (n = 4); 2) experienced and well-equipped national reference services, most practicing task-shifting and not experiencing ARV stock-outs (n = 5); 3) small district services with limited resources and activities, almost all experiencing ARV stock-outs (n = 6); 4) small district services with a wide range of activities and half not experiencing ARV stock-outs (n = 4). Results: Of the 1372 patients (women 67%, median age [Interquartile]: 39 [33-44] years) reporting sexual activity in the previous 12 months, 39% [min-max across HIV services: 25%-63%] were at risk of transmitting HIV. The final model showed that being a woman (adjusted Odd Ratio [95% Confidence Interval], p-value: 2.13 [1.60-2.82], p<0.001), not having an economic activity (1.34 [1.05-1.72], p = 0.019), having at least two sexual partners (2.45 [1.83-3.29], p<0.001), reporting disease symptoms at HIV diagnosis (1.38 [1.08-1.75], p = 0.011), delayed ART initiation (1.32 [1.02-1.71], p = 0.034) and not being ART treated (2.28 [1.48-3.49], p<0.001) were all associated with HIV transmission risk. Conversely, longer time since HIV diagnosis was associated with a lower risk of transmitting HIV (0.96 [0.92-0.99] per one-year increase, p = 0.024). Patients followed in the third profile had a higher risk of transmitting HIV (1.71 [1.05-2.79], p = 0.031) than those in the first profile. Conclusions: Healthcare supply constraints, including limited resources and ARV supply chain deficiency may impact HIV transmission risk. To reduce HIV incidence, HIV services need adequate resources to relieve healthcare supply-related barriers and provide suitable support activities throughout the continuum of care.
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inserm-04037152 , version 1 (20-03-2023)

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Pierre-Julien Coulaud, Abdourahmane Sow, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Khadim Ndiaye, Gwenaëlle Maradan, et al.. Individual and healthcare supply-related HIV transmission factors in HIV-positive patients enrolled in the antiretroviral treatment access program in the Centre and Littoral regions in Cameroon (ANRS-12288 EVOLCam survey). PLoS ONE, 2022, 17 (4), pp.e0266451. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0266451⟩. ⟨inserm-04037152⟩
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