Routine use of 16S rRNA PCR and subsequent sequencing from blood samples in septic shock: about two case reports of Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection in immunocompetent patients - Inserm - Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale Access content directly
Journal Articles BMC Infectious Diseases Year : 2022

Routine use of 16S rRNA PCR and subsequent sequencing from blood samples in septic shock: about two case reports of Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection in immunocompetent patients

Abstract

Background: Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection happens frequently in immunosuppressed patients with reported domestic animal bites. Clinical presentation ranges from simple cellulitis to fulminant septic shock with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, with an overall mortality of 30%. Conventional blood culture is often negative as this is a slow-growing pathogen. Nevertheless, the increasing use of 16S rRNA gene amplification and Sanger sequencing allows a much more rapid diagnostic confirmation. We present two case reports where 16S rRNA gene sequencing helped to diagnose Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection. Case presentation: Case 1: A 53-year-old man with a history of non-cirrhotic chronic alcohol consumption was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) of unknown origin. Blood cultures remained negative and a 16S rRNA PCR was performed leading to the identification of Capnocytophaga Canimorsus on day 4. Targeted antibiotic therapy with ceftriaxone for 14 days lead to overall recovery. Afterwards, the patient recalled a dog bite 2 days before hospitalization with a punctiform necrotic wound localized on a finger, which was not obvious at admission. Case 2: A 38-year-old man arrived to the emergency department for acute alcohol intoxication and history of a dog bite 2 days before. At admission, septic shock with purpura fulminans was diagnosed and required ICU hospitalization, invasive mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support and renal replacement therapy due to the rapid clinical deterioration. In the context of septic shock with purpura fulminans, DIC and recent dog bite, the diagnosis of Capnocytophaga canimorsus septic shock was suspected, and early confirmed by 16S rRNA PCR coupled to Sanger sequencing on day 2. Blood cultures became only positive for Capnocytophaga canimorsus 5 days after admission. Ceftriaxone alone was infused for 10 days in total, and the patient was discharged from the ICU on day 25. Conclusions: 16S rRNA gene PCR proves an important diagnostic tool when facing a sepsis of unknown origin. In these two cases of septic shock related to Capnocytophaga canimorsus, initial blood cultures remained negative at 24 h, whereas the diagnosis was achieved by 16S rRNA PCR sequencing performed from blood samples obtained at admission.
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Dates and versions

inserm-03694305 , version 1 (13-06-2022)

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Alexandre Martins-Baltar, Sylvain Meyer, Olivier Barraud, Fabien Garnier, Marie-Cécile Ploy, et al.. Routine use of 16S rRNA PCR and subsequent sequencing from blood samples in septic shock: about two case reports of Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection in immunocompetent patients. BMC Infectious Diseases, 2022, 22 (1), pp.355. ⟨10.1186/s12879-022-07328-z⟩. ⟨inserm-03694305⟩
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