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Journal Articles BMC Psychiatry Year : 2021

Suicidal ideation among Lebanese adults: scale validation and correlates


Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO) figures in 2015, the number of people attempting suicide worldwide per year exceeds 800,000 individuals. The majority of completed suicides (78%) occur in low-and middle-income countries. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the suicidal ideation subscale of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale and evaluate risk factors (emotional intelligence, alexithymia, anxiety, depression, and stress) related to suicidal ideation among the Lebanese adult population. Methods: A structured cross-sectional survey was carried out between November 2017 and March 2018, enrolling a proportionate random sample of 789 community-dwelling participants from all the Lebanese regions. A correlation analysis between the C-SSRS and anxiety and depression assessed the convergent validity of the scale. An exploratory and a confirmatory factor analysis validated its construct. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency reliability. Multiple linear regression was performed using the suicidal ideation score as the dependent variable. All variables were included in the multivariable model. Results: The C-SSRS scale converged over a solution of one factor; the proportion of explained variance was 0.797. The Cronbach's alpha value was good (0.797). The convergent validity was tested with depression and anxiety scales. The results showed a moderate positive correlation between the suicide ideation score and depression (rho = 0.507, p < 0.001) and anxiety (rho = 0.402, p < 0.001). The multivariable analysis showed that higher depression (Unstandardized Beta, B = 0.035, p < 0.001), higher anxiety (B = 0.015, p = 0.008), and higher alcohol dependence (B = 0.024, p < 0.001) were significantly linked to higher suicidal ideation score. However, higher self-esteem (B =-0.041, p = 0.006) was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation scores. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the Arabic version of the C-SSRS subscale could serve as an appropriate assessment tool for suicidal ideation. This paper also gave insights into factors correlated with higher suicidal ideation scores, such as depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependence. Further studies are necessary to confirm our findings and implement suicide prevention programs.
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inserm-03306782 , version 1 (29-07-2021)



Maha Zakhour, Chadia Haddad, Hala Sacre, Kassandra Fares, Marwan Akel, et al.. Suicidal ideation among Lebanese adults: scale validation and correlates. BMC Psychiatry, 2021, 21, pp.100. ⟨10.1186/s12888-021-03111-7⟩. ⟨inserm-03306782⟩
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