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Journal Articles JAMA Network Open Year : 2024

Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity and Mortality Among Older People

Abstract

Importance Sarcopenia and obesity are 2 global concerns associated with adverse health outcomes in older people. Evidence on the population-based prevalence of the combination of sarcopenia with obesity (sarcopenic obesity [SO]) and its association with mortality are still limited. Objective To investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and SO and their association with all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants This large-scale, population-based cohort study assessed participants from the Rotterdam Study from March 1, 2009, to June 1, 2014. Associations of sarcopenia and SO with all-cause mortality were studied using Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox proportional hazards regression, and accelerated failure time models fitted for sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Data analysis was performed from January 1 to April 1, 2023. Exposures The prevalence of sarcopenia and SO, measured based on handgrip strength and body composition (BC) (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) as recommended by current consensus criteria, with probable sarcopenia defined as having low handgrip strength and confirmed sarcopenia and SO defined as altered BC (high fat percentage and/or low appendicular skeletal muscle index) in addition to low handgrip strength. Main Outcome and Measure The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, collected using linked mortality data from general practitioners and the central municipal records, until October 2022. Results In the total population of 5888 participants (mean [SD] age, 69.5 [9.1] years; mean [SD] BMI, 27.5 [4.3]; 3343 [56.8%] female), 653 (11.1%; 95% CI, 10.3%-11.9%) had probable sarcopenia and 127 (2.2%; 95% CI, 1.8%-2.6%) had confirmed sarcopenia. Sarcopenic obesity with 1 altered component of BC was present in 295 participants (5.0%; 95% CI, 4.4%-5.6%) and with 2 altered components in 44 participants (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.0%). An increased risk of all-cause mortality was observed in participants with probable sarcopenia (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14-1.47) and confirmed sarcopenia (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.53-2.43). Participants with SO plus 1 altered component of BC (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.60-2.33]) or 2 altered components of BC (HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.97-4.11) had a higher risk of mortality than those without SO. Similar results for SO were obtained for participants with a BMI of 27 or greater. Conclusions and Relevance In this study, sarcopenia and SO were found to be prevalent phenotypes in older people and were associated with all-cause mortality. Additional alterations of BC amplified this risk independently of age, sex, and BMI. The use of low muscle strength as a first step of both diagnoses may allow for early identification of individuals at risk for premature mortality.
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hal-04631374 , version 1 (04-07-2024)

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Elizabeth Benz, Alexandre Pinel, Christelle Guillet, Frédéric Capel, Bruno Pereira, et al.. Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity and Mortality Among Older People. JAMA Network Open, 2024, 7 (3), pp.e243604. ⟨10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.3604⟩. ⟨hal-04631374⟩
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